Knowing the various components of your car is critical if you want to be able to properly take care of it and make it function as long as possible. Of all the parts of your car, the transmission is one of the most complicated. If you can understand what your transmission is made up you are making a huge step to becoming a car-savvy person.
The parts that are most important to understand how your transmission works are the torque converter, input shaft, transmission oil pump, valve body, pistons and servos, planetary gear sets, band and clutches, and output shafts.
The torque converter is a fluid coupling that connects and disconnects the engine and transmission. It consist of three main parts: The impeller, turbine and stator. The impeller is the driving fan that produces oil movement inside the converter. The turbine is also a driven fan that is splined to the input shaft of the automatic transmission. The stator is designed to improve oil circulation inside the torque convertor.
The planetary gears are sets that provide different gear ratios and reverse gears. A planetary gear consists of a sun gear, several planet gears, a gear carrier and a ring gear. A common automatic transmission typically uses two or more planetary gear sets.
The input shaft transfers power from the torque converter to the internal drive member and gear sets. The transmission oil pump produces pressure to operate the hydraulic components in the transmission. It also produces pressure to operate the automatic transmission. This part of the transmission is located behind the torque convertor or in the valve body.
The valve body controls oil flow to the piston and servos, and also contains many of the hydraulic valves of an automatic transmission. The pistons and servos actuate bands and clutches, which apply clamping pressure on different parts of the planetary gear sets to operate them. The output shafts then transfer engine torque from the gear sets to the drive shaft.
Other parts of the transmission include bell housing, fluid, and filters. The bell housing is a cone shaped metal case that you can see if you look underneath your car. The transmission fluid is essential for a properly functioning transmission. Most cars have red fluid, so if you see red fluid laying around your garage you may have a leak. The transmission filters help so that your car shifts gears at the right time.
If you have any more questions or problems with your transmission or just your car in general, call Grisham’s Transmission Center today at 615-226-2789.