How to Save Money on Gifts

Giving gifts does not have to be spendthrift. As the old adage goes, “It is the thought that counts”. This goes to show that people can start cutting back on gifts that would cost them hundreds of dollars. It is best to opt for things that may not be that expensive but would definitely bring joy and amusement to the one who will receive the gift.

So, if you want to give gifts but with a tight budget, worry no more because there are many ways to cut back on the prices but still be able to give gifts that will be deeply appreciated.

Start a Gift Closet

If you have not done this before, try to do it now. Shop for gifts the whole year-round. This would mean less hassle and less expense, a definite money-saver.

The point here is that if you do not plan in advance, you will end up spending more.

You could try buying gifts at bazaars, special sales, and out-of-town trips, which you can deposit in your gift closet. In this way, you can buy the items at a much lower price than it would be sold for during the holidays.

However, to make sure that you do not give the same gift twice, you should make an inventory of all your gifts. This will also allow you to keep tabs on what you have in your stock.

Alternatively, apart from stockpiling gifts, collect wrapping paper, ribbons, and other accents as well. A gift is better appreciated when it is beautifully wrapped.

Be Creative

Nothing could be more amusing than a gift that was specially made by the person who gave the gift. Personalizing you gifts is far better than commercially made items. In this way, you do not only create a smile to the one who will receive the gift but would also cut back a large amount from your expenses.

Organizing Tip

One of the best ways of saving money on gifts is to be organized with the process. That is, before going to the store to shop for the gifts, always bring with you a shopping list. It should be stated there the names of the person to whom you will give the gift and the budget for each person.

The bottom line is that gifts should not be expensive. What matters most is that you have thought of the person on that very special day and that’s enough to make them feel they are special to you.

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The Concept of Ownership

One of the most fundamental concepts in private law, regardless of the jurisdiction, is the concept of ownership. What belongs to who is fundamental in many aspects of the law, ranging from who bears the risk during the process of sale through to whether or not a theft has been committed. Furthermore, ownership can be vital in cases of personal insolvency and taxation law, showing its significantly wider implications on the legal systems in which it forms a part.

For the most of Europe and America, the common law forms the bulk of the law of the jurisdiction. That means that the law if a formulation of past results, interpretations, cases, and authoritative academic writings, and sort of moulds into what is required of it, thus creating an advantageous flexibility and dynamism that is necessary to strengthen and boost economies. In the common law jurisdictions, property ownership naturally differs greatly, as there are a number of different interpretations, depending on which jurisdiction you follow. Largely it is decided in a way that fits within the specific private legal sector, and can be modified or changed to reflect areas of weakness as they arise. This flexibility, however, comes at the price of certainty, and it is often complicated to effectively and definitively determine who has what right at what time.

Alternatively, many countries adopt the concept of the Roman Civil law, which has stood the test of time as a comprehensive mechanism for determining property and civil jurisdiction. Although largely antiquated, the roman law is adapted to fit within the specific context of the relevant jurisdiction, to provide a set of guiding principles which form and shape the direction of the law, particularly in relation to property. One of the most important roman law concepts regarding ownership is that or the jus in rem, otherwise known as a real right. A real right is a right in a property (where property means an object, tangible or intangible), contrasted with a personal right which is a right in a person, i.e. a contract. The difference between a real right and a personal right is that if a person/company goes insolvent, all personal rights become worthless, merely executable against their sequestrated estate alongside all other creditors. However, a real right is a completely different animal, allowing a stake of ownership in an asset, regardless of whether a person is liquidated, dies, or dishonours an obligation. For this reason, many banks and other mortgage lending institutions won’t even think about loaning money without a security over a house or car: the security is the real right, i.e. the stake to ownership, they need to ensure they are covered, even if you can pay your liquid debts. The benefit of this roman interpretation is that it provides a steadfast approach to solving problems, albeit a slightly more rigid approach that requires considerable effort to overhaul.

In spite of their own differences, both broad methods of determining ownership and rights are effective in their own way, and many jurisdictions choose a combination of both to improve their approach to tackling property and ownership problems. As an area of international private law, it becomes even more complex as parties are faced with the prospect of weighing up competing interests and competing authorities. Furthermore it is the subject of many international conventions working towards a resolution for harmonious property transacting. In Europe, this harmonisation is largely taking effect by virtue of the European Convention on Human Rights, which lays down certain specific minimums for signatory countries to follow in regards to property and other laws. Perhaps the adoption of a similar style convention for the US would be particularly beneficial in resolving property problems across frontiers, although it is submitted that indeed intra-state property transfer is gradually becoming an easier process. All in all the concept of ownership is particularly interesting, and an area of law that is under constant change and revision to aid economic and social progress on a worldwide scale.

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Saving Money on Electricity: A Money-Saving Maintenance

An electrical appliance that does not work at maximum capacity results in less than ideal performance and higher electricity bills. That is why it is best to save on electricity in order to save more money.

Here is how you can get everything saving up:

1. Keep your appliances clean and well maintained. Regular cleaning and maintenance keeps your appliances in top shape, hence, it will perform better and consumes lesser energy. Energy saved is money saved.

2. Have an annual checkup by a qualified service technician. This can reduce the appliance’s operating costs by as much as 20%, extend the life of the system, and improve its safety and air quality.

3. When using air conditioners, it is best to establish your comfort temperature, and then setting your thermostat at that level permanently. This will definitely save on electric bills because the air conditioning unit takes less energy to cool air four to five degrees than it does to cool air eight to ten degrees.

4. Replace any items that may have been 10 years or older already. Old appliances are most likely not at their optimum efficiency. By replacing them, your electric bills may be cut by half.

5. If you experience a power outage, make sure you turn off the switch on your appliances and allow time to pass before turning the appliances on again when the power returns.

6. In refrigerators, do not overstuff compartments with bottles and plastic containers. Cool air must circulate freely to avoid overworking the condenser.

Also, try not to leave the door of your refrigerator as open as possible or open longer than what is needed. This will have the tendency to allow the cool air to break out.

7. Always try to look for the “energy saving” logo or notes whenever you buy your new appliances. Buying an appliance with a logo that states it consumes lower energy, it will definitely let you save more money on your electricity.

8. Always use energy saving lights or light bulbs. These energy saving lights or light bulbs usually last up to 12 times longer. Plus, energy saving light bulbs consume less energy. Hence, you will be able to save more money just by saving on electricity.

9. Use energy-saving facilities at home like energy-saving windows or energy-saving appliances. This will lessen the consumption of energy and, thus, will let you save on money.

For instance, use a “double-glazed” window instead of the ordinary window.

10. Use insulators at home. This will not let the warm or cool air out, and vice-versa.

Indeed, saving on electricity will definitely save more money.

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The Agency Relationship

One of the most important relationships in commercial reality is that of the agent. Often employed in purchasing internationally, or indeed in negotiating the conclusion of a contract, the agent is seen in law as an extension of the principal for whom he acts, with the uncharacteristic authority to make decisions and enter contracts on behalf of another. However, what is the extent of the agent’s authority? How far can he really go in acting for his client before he ends up creating problems? Furthermore, what happens when the agent goes beyond his allotted authority to make unauthorised decisions on behalf of his agent? In this article we will look at some of the founding principles of the agency relationship, its importance, and some of the key considerations for modern debate.

Agency can normally arises in a number of situations, although these can broadly be categorised as follows. An agency relationship can be created by express notification, that is by way of a contract outlining his authority. It can be created impliedly, that is by implication of law or by permitting someone to act as agent on your behalf, and it can also be created by ratification, an unusual and counter-logical provision that allows principals to ‘ratify’ the unauthorised actions of an agent at a later date. This means in effect the agent can bind a third party with retrospective effect, as the ratification gives the agents authority force from when the contract was entered into. Of course, this means the third party could sustain loss, although this can be countered by allowing an action against the agent, or indeed the principal for the time delay and any damage sustained in material terms.

The agency relationship is particularly peculiar in that it boycotts one of the most fundamental principles of contract: that an agreement should be made between two parties. Effectively, it is used where the agent has the ability and skill to negotiate contracts more effectively than the agent for which he acts, or indeed in commercial situations where the principal has delegated negotiation to a specific party. Additionally, it is not unknown for partners of a partnership and directors of a company to be considered agents, although this is applied in limited jurisdictions. On the whole, it mainly concerns actings in commercial situations for the purposes of exploiting a particular individual’s skill in negotiation. For this reason it is an instance of delectus personae, i.e. the agent is personally desired to fulfil his role, rather than delegate.

One of the most important issues of the agency agreement is the way in which an agent can negotiate beyond his authority. Where he does so, the agent will in the interim bind himself personally to the contract in most jurisdictions, therefore it is imperative that agents have experience and knowledge of the law in this area to avoid falling foul of this provision. Generally, the agent’s liability ceases on ratification, although this is not an absolute rule, and this has come in for a great deal of criticism in recent times. The ability to ratify, as discussed above, is one of the most common areas for agency reform discussed, alongside the need for uniformity and harmonisation on an international scale. The fact that international agents can often be subject to governance from conflicting law sets is unfortunate, and efforts are being made to improve the situation and thus aid international trade relations. It is hoped that within the next decade a draft code of international agency law will be drafted, afforded rights and libelling responsibilities at a basic ‘grass-roots’ level of uniform application. This would certainly resolve the primary problem with international agency, and would have an untold effect on international trade and exchange. And with steps towards further integration already underway, particularly in Europe, the dream of a unified practice for agents is thankfully not too distant.

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High-low Numbers: Tips on Saving Money on Clothes

Are you craving for the newest designer clothes, a pretty tank top, and that pretty dress? All this fashion comes at a price — you choose.

Buying clothes these days is always a choice between the designer-made outfit or those cheap but quality items that you could pull together and express your personality in many different ways.

Most experts contend that clothes can definitely make or break a person. They say that your personality is usually reflected on how you dress up. But it does not necessarily mean that good fashion would absolutely mean expensive clothes.

Hence, you can still make a remarkable fashion statement without having to spend hundreds or even thousands of dollars just for your clothes.

Here is a list of some money-saving tips when buying clothes that would turn other people’s heads to you but would not definitely break your wallet.

1. Do the math

Choosing fashionable clothes can be really tricky, not unless you know how to do the math! So before you buy three sets of clothes that would cost you hundreds of dollars, try to go for the budget-friendly dozen of items that you can even match alternatively.

The number of expensive items that your money can buy is definitely doubled or even tripled when you buy cheaper ones but can still make a good fashion statement.

2. Know what you want

Saving money is definitely based on knowing what you want whenever you spend your money on something. If you know what you want, this means that you have researched the item, have compared them with the other items, you will be able to come up with the lowest price of the product.

3. Drive your way to a “thrift store”

Usually, these “thrift stores” are non-profit organizations. This means that they are usually operating for charity. They give their proceeds to some charitable institutions.

Hence, the prices of the clothes being sold in the thrift store are absolutely cheaper than the ones being sold in the department store. So that would mean many savings for you.

Best of all, you do not only get to save more money, you get to do some charity work as well.

The bottom line here is that when shopping for clothes, do not shop for the brand name, shop for the quality.

Nowadays, you just have to be practical. Better spend your money on more important things than those designer clothes.

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Tips on Saving Money during the Holidays

With the hype that holidays usually bring, people always have the tendency to buy more and spend more without taking into account the consequences that their actions can bring.

Hence, it does not necessarily mean that because it is the holidays you have all the reason in this world to buy whatever you want and spend how much you want. Some people contend that it’s just once a year, so better give what you have.

The problem is that giving something just for the spirit of the holidays does not mean you have to spend gold. You can still give something that will be deeply appreciated without having to spend more money.

Here’s how:

1. Make a budget and stick to it

The problem with most people is that they find making a budget relatively easy but sticking to it is doubly hard. So what’s the point of making a budget when you do not know how to conform to what you have stated in there?

Making and using your budget should always go hand in hand. Therefore, when you make your budget this holiday season, it is best that you follow the things that are written in it so that you would be able to save more money.

2. Live within your means

Of course, everybody would want to give gifts because that is what the holiday season calls for. However, it does not necessarily mean that you have to spend more than what you can afford.

The trick to saving more money is to always live within your means. Spending more than what you can afford will definitely bring more problems than you can afford to solve.

3. Personalize it!

As they say, it is the thought that counts. Hence, there are no better ways to show how much you have thought of those people this holiday season than making personalized gifts.

4. Shop and compare

It really pays to shop around and doubly better when you compare prices. You will never know which items are better priced than the others are when you do not compare their values.

The point here is that you should not be confined to one shopping portal. Try to look for other items, usually in thrift stores and consignment shops, where you can find the best items at a lower price.

Indeed, shopping for the holidays can be fun, but you don’t have to be spendthrift. Nowadays, you really just have to be practical.

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Tackling International Litigation

One of the main problems with doing business across international frontiers, particularly online business, is that of international litigation, given that it can be hard to exercise rights in a foreign jurisdiction. It is perhaps one of the biggest dangers with contracting internationally that in the event of dispute, both parties claim their law is trump, which causes some obvious problems as they struggle towards an amicable outcome. However, there are many ways around this situation for the savvy internet lawyer, including the widely used choice of law clause and the mutual arbitration or adjudication, which can help bypass this situation. In this article we will look at a practical approach to tackling online litigation, and the ways in which a party can look to resolve problems across national frontiers.

Initially, good dispute resolution begins with prevention, which means good and effective drafting of the contract. Before transacting with anyone online, it is essential that you are fully aware of their terms and conditions of service and ensure you clarify anything you’d like to see in the contract. If your proposals aren’t accepted, you’re far better to avoid transacting to avoid problems, particularly where substantial money is at stake. Alternatively, if you are drafting an agreement from scratch it is imperative that you decide mutually on the terms, particularly what is known as the choice of law clause. Choice of law refers to a particular designation in the contractual terms which stipulates that in the event of a dispute, both parties submit to an exclusive jurisdiction. This is usually to the favour of the seller’s knowledge, although may even be a neutral jurisdiction to avoid perceived bias. Provided that the choice of law is stipulated in advance, it is a particularly effective way of ensuring disputes are properly resolved to the satisfaction of both parties.

Another highly effective way to tackle online litigation is to submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of some online adjudication service in the terms and conditions. This involves a third party, usually a totally independent party, which is designed to regulate and prevent bias or unfavourable outcomes. This eventually leads to a definite ruling one way or the other, which is helpful in ensuring no-one feels hard done to, and generally that justice is done. Again, this is all down to the agreement and the way in which it is drafted. By good drafting, many of the problems of litigation can be weeded out before they arise, leading to a more fluid and resolved business relationship in general.

In addition to contractual disputes, much of international litigation is taking shape online, as more and more parties find problems in dealing with those outwith their own boundary lines. Primarily, the issues of copyright and information theft are being thrust to the fore, as issues that strike to the very core of business online. Through establishing more regulatory online framework, it is possible, and indeed encouraged, for more efforts to be injected in regulating the way in which most of our business is conducted. In the coming years, there will likely be much development in Internet law, particularly of a trans-national ilk, which will have a natural knock on effect on offline litigation to the benefit of business and trade.

Online litigation has risen to the forefront of legal thinking in recent years with the rise of the Internet. As business becomes naturally more global, it is important to consider how disputes can be resolved, and indeed how this will pan out in the future. There are suggestions of further developments of voluntary online courts, which will hear cases and establish a code of ethics, and this can only be good news for those parties feeling aggrieved by the system. With each transaction, the Internet is becoming a more stable environment in which to conduct business, and a more regulated forum for marketing and commerce.

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